Papers Related to Meteorology
This page contains various papers that I have written on subjects related to meteorology. Topics include lake-effect snow, global warming, the urban heat island effect, forest fires, and others.
"Thermal Infrared Radiative Effects of Various Urban Materials Upon Vegetation" has three other authors. "Time-Series Analysis of 20 Years of Hourly Precipitation in Southwest Michigan" is my master's thesis that was published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research. "Analyzing the Effects of Inquiry-Based Instruction on the Learning of Atmospheric Science Among Pre-Service Teacher Education Students" is my doctoral dissertation.
(Thermal Infrared Radiative Effects of Various Urban Materials Upon Vegetation)
The paper examines thermal infrared radiation and its influence on vegetation in close proximity to buildings composed of different materials. The intention is to examine the urban heat island effect and its impact upon vegetation.
(Lake-Effect Precipitation in Michigan)
This is an introduction to the topic of lake-effect precipitation in Michigan. Issues that are addressed include (1) the formation of intense snow bands, and (2) the lake-enhancement of snowfall totals from synoptic-scaled low pressure systems. Climate change is also addressed as it relates to increases in lake-effect snowfall over the last several decades.
(Global Warming: An Introduction)
An introduction to the topic of global warming is presented. Various perspectives on the subject are given. This paper is not meant as a thorough study, but only as a stepping stone for readers to do further personal research.
(The 1988 Forest Fires of Yellowstone National Park)
An incredible 36% of Yellowstone National Park was burned by fires during 1988, a year when severe drought and strong winds plagued the region. This paper discusses the extent of the fire as well as the influence of climate, weather, and the natural cycle of life in the forest.
(Time-Series Analysis of 20 Years of Hourly Precipitation in Southwest Michigan)
ABSTRACT: Hourly precipitation data from Oshtemo Township, Michigan – located approximately 55 km east of the lee shore of
Lake Michigan -- for the period of April 1980 through March 2000 were examined. Diurnal analysis of precipitation as well as time
series analysis of precipitation were performed on the study period. An overall nocturnal maximum in the mean accumulation of
precipitation was detected during the two-hour periods before 2000 LST and 2200 LST. Elevated spring and fall accumulations were
responsible for this evening maximum. Elevated summer and winter accumulations were responsible for a weak secondary morning
maximum. An overall morning maximum in the mean precipitation hours was detected during the two-hour period before 1000 LST.
ARIMA modeling verified that both precipitation accumulations and counts, for all times of the day, were significant at the 5% level. A
storm event model was developed from the time series, the resulting values of which can be used as input in mesoscale climate,
hydrological and agricultural computer models: the mean pulse duration was 2.44 hours; the mean interlude between pulses was 37.64
hours; the mean event accumulation was 4.1 mm; and the mean rate was 1.8 mm / hr. Finally, inter-annual analysis performed for the
period of 1981 to 1999 showed that there was no statistically significant change in precipitation over the period. (Images and bibliography)
(A Lesson on the Arbitrary Nature of Thermometer Scales Using the Historical Case of the Creation of the Fahrenheit Temperature Scale)
ABSTRACT: The historical case study of Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit’s creation of the first mercury thermometer with reliable scales is used as the basis for a lesson that is designed to provide students with a richer insight into the arbitrary nature of thermometer scales. The lesson attempts to move students beyond a level of understanding that is based simply on knowing how to read and use a thermometer, to a level of understanding that is based on knowing the very procedures and principles used to create thermometric scales. By studying the criteria that Fahrenheit used to create his scale, students should begin to obtain a richer insight into the arbitrary nature of thermometer scales in general. It is argued that it is insufficient to teach students how to read and use thermometers without giving them some notion of how a scale came into existence because no real insight is being provided into the nature of science. Students must be introduced to the actual procedures used by scientists if they are to understand how scientists have obtained their knowledge. The use of the historical example moves the teaching of science beyond the "cold" facts of science to the dynamic processes that are behind the facts. The extreme of teaching science as infallible is avoided by focusing on the idea that science is a human product that is subject to change. This paper does not advocate teaching science as a historical discipline, but rather argues that part of the science curriculum should include historical cases, such as the creation of the Fahrenheit temperature scale, in order to bring out the specific characteristics of science.
(Analyzing the Effects of Inquiry-Based Instruction on the Learning of Atmospheric Science Among Pre-Service Teacher Education Students)
ABSTRACT:This study tested whether or not pre-service teacher education students enrolled in inquiry-based earth science courses gained more thorough knowledge, comprehension, and application proficiencies with regard to atmospheric science concepts included in the Michigan Curriculum Framework for Science Education--the content standards of the Michigan State Board of Education for K-12--than did pre-service teacher education students enrolled in a traditionally-based earth science lecture/laboratory course. Content proficiencies and predispositions to atmospheric science among students were tested at the beginning of the semester (the pretest) and again at the end of the semester (the posttest). A sample of students participated in post-test interview sessions designed to examine in depth their dispositions toward atmospheric science. Classroom observation data related to the behavior of both students and instructors were collected and were later coded and analyzed using a lesson observation instrument that was based on Michigan and national teaching and learning standards and had an orientation toward inquiry and investigative approaches to learning. Analysis of the pretest/posttests revealed that students in the traditional course demonstrated gains in knowledge and comprehension of content that resulted in statistically significant improvements on the overall posttest scores. Students in the inquiry-based courses accomplished some improvements in knowledge, comprehension and application proficiencies that did not result in statistically significant improvements on the overall posttest scores. The analysis of data suggests that the traditional course was more effective in preparing pre-service teachers consistent with the Michigan Curriculum Framework. The interpretation of the classroom observations and the interview sessions revealed that the inquiry-based courses were not fully consistent with national and state standards, included activities that did not adequately use investigative procedures, and lacked several major content areas outlined by the Michigan Curriculum Framework on which the pretest/posttest was based.
The background used on this page is courtesy of: